Major Information Technologies relevant for SIMPLI-CITY are smartphone technologies and wireless sensor network technologies. Both kinds of technologies employ wireless communication, but feature in general a variety of different technologies in this context.
Wireless communication technology in the context of smartphones relies in general on classical mobile phone technology. This means that smartphones usually make use of GSM-networks and employ GPRS or EDGE technology for wireless data transmission or implement the more recent UMTS standard. In addition to these wireless communication technologies for long-range communication, smartphones are usually further equipped with wireless communication technologies for rather short-range communication. They usually support Bluetooth communication and Wi-Fi, implementing the IEEE 802.11 standard. Some most recent devices have been developed which implement NFC (Near Field Communication) technology. This technology builds upon RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and allows an NFC-enabled smartphone to act as an RFID-reader or an RFID-tag (Ergen, 2009), (Labiod et al., 2007), (Langer and Roland, 2010), (Samsung, 2011). Moreover, multiple communication technologies can be used in parallel by harnessing Multi Path TCP (MPTCP) (Ford et al., 2013). This ensures more reliable sessions, increases the quality of service, and enables a more cost efficient communication. Furthermore, optimizations to improve MPTCP have been proposed, e.g., by harnessing network coding (Cloudy et al., 2013).
A new upcoming communication field is the car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure communication. Here also 802.11 WiFi will be used, especially the dedicated vehicular standard 802.11p. This standard describes dedicated frequency bands and is optimized with respect to a fast and efficient connection setup.
In the context of wireless sensor network technology, the most relevant wireless communication standard is IEEE 802.15.4 which describes the lower two layers of the ISO-OSI protocol stack and building upon this standard the ZigBee-standard realizing the upper layers of the wireless communication technology. Nevertheless, there are wireless sensor platforms employing Bluetooth technology as well (Karl & Willig, 2007), (Verdone et al., 2010), (Beutel et al., 2004), (Labiod et al., 2007).
SIMPLI-CITY will benefit from new communication techniques and be an enabler to integrate different data sources into mobility oriented applications. Every new communication technique also pushes the increase of the amount of wirelessly connected devices that are also potential data sources for mobility-related apps.