Wireless Communication Technologies

Major Information Technologies relevant for SIMPLI-CITY are smartphone technologies and wireless sensor network technologies. Both kinds of technologies employ wireless communication, but feature in general a variety of different technologies in this context.

Wireless communication technology in the context of smartphones relies in general on classical mobile phone technology. This means that smartphones usually make use of GSM-networks and employ GPRS or EDGE technology for wireless data transmission or implement the more recent UMTS standard. In addition to these wireless communication technologies for long-range communication, smartphones are usually further equipped with wireless communication technologies for rather short-range communication. They usually support Bluetooth communication and Wi-Fi, implementing the IEEE 802.11 standard. Some most recent devices have been developed which implement NFC (Near Field Communication) technology. This technology builds upon RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and allows an NFC-enabled smartphone to act as an RFID-reader or an RFID-tag (Ergen, 2009), (Labiod et al., 2007), (Langer and Roland, 2010), (Samsung, 2011). Moreover, multiple communication technologies can be used in parallel by harnessing Multi Path TCP (MPTCP) (Ford et al., 2013). This ensures more reliable sessions, increases the quality of service, and enables a more cost efficient communication. Furthermore, optimizations to improve MPTCP have been proposed, e.g., by harnessing network coding (Cloudy et al., 2013).

A new upcoming communication field is the car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure communication. Here also 802.11 WiFi will be used, especially the dedicated vehicular standard 802.11p. This standard describes dedicated frequency bands and is optimized with respect to a fast and efficient connection setup.

In the context of wireless sensor network technology, the most relevant wireless communication standard is IEEE 802.15.4 which describes the lower two layers of the ISO-OSI protocol stack and building upon this standard the ZigBee-standard realizing the upper layers of the wireless communication technology. Nevertheless, there are wireless sensor platforms employing Bluetooth technology as well (Karl & Willig, 2007), (Verdone et al., 2010), (Beutel et al., 2004), (Labiod et al., 2007).

SIMPLI-CITY will benefit from new communication techniques and be an enabler to integrate different data sources into mobility oriented applications. Every new communication technique also pushes the increase of the amount of wirelessly connected devices that are also potential data sources for mobility-related apps.


References and Further Reading



[1]
B. T. Sharef, R. A. Alsaqour, and M. Ismail, “Vehicular communication ad hoc routing protocols: A survey,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 40, pp. 363–396, 2014.

[2]
O. Kaiwartya and S. Kumar, “Geocast routing: Recent advances and future challenges in vehicular adhoc networks,” in Signal Processing and Integrated Networks (SPIN), 2014 International Conference on, 2014, pp. 291–296.

[3]
R. Jiang, Y. Zhu, T. He, Y. Liu, and L. M. Ni, “Exploiting Trajectory-based Coverage for Geocast in Vehicular Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Parallel & Distributed Systems, no. 12, pp. 3177–3189, 2014.

[4]
A. Festag, R. Baldessari, W. Zhang, L. Le, A. Sarma, and M. Fukukawa, “Car-2-x communication for safety and infotainment in europe,” NEC Technical Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 21–26, 2008.

[5]
J. C. Navas and T. Imielinski, “GeoCast—geographic addressing and routing,” in Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking, 1997, pp. 66–76.

[6]
D. Tse and P. Viswanath, Fundamentals of wireless communication. Cambridge university press, 2005.

[7]
T. S. Rappaport, Wireless communications: principles and practice, vol. 2. prentice hall PTR New Jersey, 1996.

[8]
A. Ford, C. Raiciu, M. Handley, and O. Bonaventure, “TCP Extensions for Multipath Operation with Multiple Addresses,” IETF RFC 6824, Jan-2013. [Online]. Available: http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6824.

[9]
F. Li and Y. Wang, “Routing in vehicular ad hoc networks: A survey,” Vehicular Technology Magazine, IEEE, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 12–22, 2007.

[10]
P. Papadimitratos, A. La Fortelle, K. Evenssen, R. Brignolo, and S. Cosenza, “Vehicular communication systems: Enabling technologies, applications, and future outlook on intelligent transportation,” Communications Magazine, IEEE, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 84–95, 2009.

[11]
D. Jiang and L. Delgrossi, “IEEE 802.11 p: Towards an international standard for wireless access in vehicular environments,” in Vehicular Technology Conference, 2008. VTC Spring 2008. IEEE, 2008, pp. 2036–2040.

[12]
IEEE Standards Association, “IEEE SA - 802.11p-2010 - IEEE Standard for Information technology-- Local and metropolitan area networks-- Specific requirements-- Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 6: Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments.” [Online]. Available: https://standards.ieee.org/findstds/standard/802.11p-2010.html. [Accessed: 04-Mar-2014].

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[14]
R. Prasad, S. Dixit, R. van Nee, and T. Ojanpera, Globalization of Mobile and Wireless Communications: Today and in 2020. Springer, 2010.

[15]
G. L. Stüber, Principles of mobile communication. Springer, 2011.

[16]
R. Kreher and T. Rüdebusch, UMTS signaling: UMTS interfaces, protocols, message flows and procedures analyzed and explained. Wiley, 2012.

[17]
S. Sesia, I. Toufik, and M. Baker, “LTE–The UMTS Long Term Evolution,” From Theory to Practice, published in, vol. 66, 2009.

[18]
J. G. Andrews, A. Ghosh, and R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX: understanding broadband wireless networking. Prentice Hall PTR, 2007.

[19]
L. Ahlin, J. Zander, and S. Ben Slimane, “Principles of wireless communications,” 2006.

[20]
R. Blake, Wireless Communication Technology. Delmar Thomson Learning, 2000.

[21]
J. Beutel, O. Kasten, F. Mattern, K. Römer, F. Siegemund, and L. Thiele, “Prototyping wireless sensor network applications with BTnodes,” Wireless Sensor Networks, pp. 323–338, 2004.

[22]
R. Verdone, D. Dardari, G. Mazzini, and A. Conti, Wireless sensor and actuator networks: technologies, analysis and design. Academic Press, 2010.

[23]
H. Karl and A. Willig, Protocols and architectures for wireless sensor networks. Wiley-Interscience, 2007.

[24]
J. Langer and M. Roland, Anwendungen und Technik von Near Field Communication (NFC). Springer, 2010.

[25]
H. Labiod, A. Hossam, and C. De Santis, “Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Zigbee and WiMAX,” 2007.

[26]
M. Ergen, Mobile broadband: including WiMAX and LTE. Springer, 2009.